by Grahame Thom and Margaret Miller
Copied from Obadiah Ikin – the story of a Shropshire soldier and his family in Australia, by Grahame Thom and Margaret Miller, 1986, with minor alterations as indicated.
Note – much of the information in this and other pages has been found in the Australian Joint Copying Project (AJCP) microfilms, see link below for information about this project.
OBADIAH IKIN IN ENGLAND
There are several spelling variations for Obadiah Ikin, namely Obediah, Iken, Ikan, Aiken – the most commonly found spelling will be used in this story Obadiah Ikin.
Obadiah was born in Whitchurch, England, a northern Shropshire parish well known for its magnificent 18th century Church of St. Alkmund. The church was erected in 1722 on the site of a Norman church built of white stone which gave the market town its name. Under a stone slab in the Church lies John Talbot lst Earl of Shrewsbury, who was killed in 1453 fighting Joan of Arc. Another famous son of Whitchurch was the great composer Sir Edward German (1). The population of Whitchurch parish in 1831 was 5819 (2), and as well as the main town of Whitchurch there are a number of villages in this large parish where over the centuries many Ikins lived.
Obadiah was the son of Ann Ikin and was baptised on 24 March 1761 at St. Alkmund, Whitchurch (3). The parish register only lists his mother’s name and nothing has been found about Obadiah’s father or any background to Ann Ikin (3). In 2021 additional information was found that solved the issue of who was Obadiah’s father, click here. Nothing has been found of Obadiah’s early life except to say he probably had some schooling as he later signed documents in his own hand. It is likely he spent his youth in Whitchurch as he returned there for the baptism of at least one of his children, Marianne (6).
The next we hear of Obadiah is when he married Sarah Butts by banns on 23 May 1781 at the Church of St. Peter, Canterbury, Kent, England (4). Sarah is possibly the daughter of John and Ann Butts, baptised at St. Paul’s, Canterbury on 8 October 1758 (5).
To see additional information about the Butts connection, see here
Before departing from England for Sydney in 1789 Obadiah and Sarah had at least five children :-
. Obadiah Joseph, born on 18 March 1782, baptised 24 March 1782 at Manchester Cathedral, England
. Marianne (Mary), baptised on 20 March 1784 at Whitchurch, Shropshire
. William, born on 19 October 1785 at Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, baptised at St. Mary’s, Nottingham on 31 March 1786
. Mary Ann, baptised at St. James, Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk on 18 May 1788
. Alexander, baptised at St Mary, Chatham, Kent on 25 October 1789 (6).
In a memorial written in 1810 Obadiah states that he had been in the army for 26 years (7). As Obadiah was a sergeant in the Loyal Sydney Volunteer Association in 1810 it is possible that he became a soldier in 1784. However, he enlisted in the 11th Light Dragoon Guards on 14 August 1785 and was discharged on 27 March 1786 (8); perhaps his weight exceeded the limit or he was not suited to riding horses. The 11th Light Dragoons was in Nottingham at this time as the Nottingham Journal of Saturday 13 May 1786 reported that the Regiment had left Nottingham for London on the previous Tuesday and Wednesday (9).
From then until late 1789 it is not known if Obadiah joined another regiment. On his son William’s death certificate it states William was born in America (10). This is not correct as he was born in Nottingham but perhaps it is possible Obadiah enlisted in another regiment in 1786 and with his family went with the regiment to America for a tour of duty, returning in 1788. Also the fact that the Ikin family moved around southern England could have been the result of Obadiah having to move with a regiment.
In 1789 the government decided to replace the marines on duty at Sydney Cove with a specially formed army corps, the New South Wales Corps. Many men were recruited by press gangs and men of lower rank were transferred from other regiments. As Obadiah is listed as being ‘attested’ then it is likely he was either persuaded to join or came forward himself. He enlisted on 11 October 1789 and is listed in the pay musters up to 24 December 1789 as a private in Captain Hill’s Company, stationed at Chatham, England (11).
Possibly in recognition of his previous service in the army, Obadiah was promoted to Corporal on 25 December 1789, during the period convicts were being embarked on the Second Fleet transports (12), Obadiah came on board the transport Surprize on 13 November 1789 as a member of the guard under the command of Captain Hill (13). Sarah and the children probably came on board later, perhaps closer to the sailing date. From later events in the colony it is known that the Ikin children were Obadiah junior, Mary, William (14) and Alexander. Sarah’s burial entry in the parish register states she arrived on the Surprize (15) and this ship is also listed against son Alexander’s name in the 1811 and 1822 musters (16). On board the Surprize were 28 non-commissioned officers and privates, five women and eight children (17).
The Surprize of 400 tons and under the command of Captain Nicholas Anstis, carrying 254 male convicts, departed from Portsmouth, England on 19 January 1790 and arrived at Sydney in the colony of New South Wales on Saturday 26 June 1790. During the voyage 36 convicts died and over half were sick when disembarked (18). It was not a pleasant voyage as the small vessel shipped great quantities of water causing discomfort and misery to all on board. Captain Hill recorded that the men of my company whose berths were not so far forward (as the convicts) were nearly up to the middles in water (19). With little experience in transporting convicts over such distance it is little wonder that the Second Fleet had the highest mortality rate (20). So the Ikin family survived a difficult and uncomfortable voyage to start a new life in New South Wales.
THE IKIN FAMILY IN SYDNEY AND NORFOLK ISLAND 1790-94
The first we hear of Obadiah in the colony is when he gave evidence at the trial of William Marsh on 8 April 1791 (21). Then on the morning of 6 June 1791 a keg which stood at the door of Corporal lkin’s hut was missed (22). Again Obadiah gave evidence at a trial on Tuesday 19 July 1791 (23). Two marines were charged with using force and arms to break into the cellar adjoining the house of Zachariah Clark, storekeeper, on several occasions between May and July 1791. The verdict was not guilty due to lack of proof.
On 10 December 1791 Obadiah enlisted his son Obadiah in the NSW Corps as a drummer (24). This did not mean Obadiah junior was on active duty but enlisting children was used as a means of increasing the amount of rations allocated to the family. The pay musters for the Corps from December 1791 to 24 December 1796 show both Obadiah senior and junior (24). Obadiah was promoted to sergeant on 25 December 1791 and was paid one shilling six and three quarter pence per day (25).
Maria, the lkins’ first Australian born child, arrived on 30 December 1792. Her baptism took place on 19 January 1793 and was recorded in the registers for St. Phillip’s Church, Sydney (26).
On 25 January 1793 Obadiah, Sarah and their children set sail for Norfolk Island on board the Kitty, arriving on 11 February, for Captain Hill’s company was to take up duty as part of the garrison guarding the convicts (27). Everything was done to keep the soldiers happy on Norfolk Island. Their conditions were far superior to the remainder of the inhabitants and punishment for any misdemeanours was extremely light. However, their intimacy with the convicts on the Island, together with enticing women to leave their husbands, contributed to disturbances with the settlers and convicts being unwilling to endure the soldiers’ bad conduct any longer.
In late December 1793 there were a number of clashes between the soldiers, settlers and convicts. Following another disturbance on 18 January 1794 Lieutenant Governor King reported to Lieutenant Governor Grose in Sydney ‘What the consequence of seven hundred inhabitants opposing themselves to sixty-five armed soldiers would have been if not timely prevented may be easily imagined.’ So the scene was set for what has been called a mutiny by King. On the night of 18 January there were further clashes at the playhouse and in the streets following the conclusion of the play. King arrested one of the soldiers.
King immediately ordered an inquiry and from this concluded that there was ‘little doubt that the soldiers had gone to the play with a determination of making a disturbance.’ Events at the inquiry and clashes over the next three days resulted in King taking action to restore order by disarming a detachment of soldiers with the assistance of the officers and non-commissioned officers of the NSW Corps.
King isolated the ten principals of the mutineers and these soldiers were sent to Sydney in the Francis on 2 February under guard. It is not known what part Sergeant lkin played during these events but King recorded that he was supported by his officers and all non-commissioned officers. Following King’s report to Grose a number of officers and soldiers were recalled to Sydney to give evidence, including Obadiah (28). He arrived in Sydney with others on the Francis on 12 February 1794 (29). Obadiah left Sydney on 30 June 1794 to return to Norfolk Island on the Francis in order to bring his family back to Sydney (30). The lkin family left Norfolk Island on the Daedalus on 6 November 1794 probably pleased to return to Sydney (31).
ARMY LIFE TO 1803
Under Governor Phillip the colony had been ruled fairly and most of the inhabitants had survived famine and fever in establishing Sydney Town. But after Phillip departed in December 1792 conditions changed under Lieutenant Governor Grose. He favoured the military and made conditions even more difficult for the convicts (32). Being a sergeant in the NSW Corps Obadiah benefited from this policy as he received two land grants from Grose.
On 3 October 1794 Obadiah was granted 30 acres at Lane Cove with an annual quit rent of 1/- commencing after 5 years. This grant was one of the first batch of grants in the area on that date. The present Lane Cove shopping centre is within its boundaries (33). It is interesting to speculate as to whether Obadiah set foot on his grant or not. Perhaps not as on 13 December 1794 Obadiah received a lease for 14 years with an annual quit rent of 2/6 of a town block of 60 feet by 150 feet on the south side of South Street (now O’Connell Street). This grant was later cancelled by Governor King (34).
Many grants of land were given to the men of the NSW Corps and most were quickly sold or traded with their officers and wealthy residents for rum and other valuable goods. A good example is a grant of 30 acres to William Wright at Lane Cove on 3 December 1794. Recorded in the register against this grant is ‘Exchanged by Wm. Wright with Obadiah Ikin for Wm. Baker’s farm, then sold on 3rd August 1797 to John Holdsworth for three pounds’ etc (35).
In addition to enlisting Obadiah junior in the NSW Corps, Obadiah enlisted his son William as a drummer on 4 December 1794; more rations as William did not take up active duty until 1803 (36).
On 19 August 1795 the Ikins’ second Australian born child arrived and Thomas Moore Ikin was baptised at St. Phillip’s, Sydney on 15 May 1796 (37). Was Thomas named after the famous English writer and statesman, Sir Thomas More, or after Thomas Moore, well known carpenter and boat builder who arrived on the Britannia in 1791, or was it simply a name the parents liked?
Where did the Ikin family live before moving to near the Windmill on the Rocks? A clue can be found in The Journal of Daniel Paine (38). On 5 July 1796 a seaman John Smith was shot dead by Daniel Paine’s servant David Lloyd at Paine’s house. The Ikin family lived next door and Sarah and Obadiah junior gave evidence at Lloyd’s trial.
The editors of the reprint of The Journal of Daniel Paine concluded that Paine’s house was situated ‘on the eastern side of the Tank Stream; along the shore line towards what is now Bennelong Point’ (39). Paine describes his brick house as ‘two Rooms on the Floor for myself and a Kitchen with two Sleeping Rooms of Wattle Thatch at the end of my Garden’ (40). It is likely that the Ikin residence was of similar size and built of wattle thatch.
A trial involving a charge of assault saw Obadiah giving evidence on 26 August 1796 (41). On 29 October 1795 Obadiah was visiting fellow Sergeant Whittle with Sergeant Jamison when an incident occurred close by involving Mr Boston and a number of defendants including Laycock, McKellar and Faithfull. The sergeants rushed outside on hearing the sounds of a shot and witnessed the final stages of the incident over the shooting of a pig by Faithfull while it was rummaging in the garden of Captain Foveaux of New South Wales Corps. Obadiah went up to Faithfull who said Boston had struck him with a stick which had cut him on the forehead.
In Old Sydney Windmills by Len Fox (42), there is mention of Obadiah Ikin owning land at Pyrmont, a ‘small post windmill on Macarthur’s Point, Pyrmont … no doubt erected by one of the Macarthur family’. John Macarthur, wool pioneer and stormy political figure of our early days, bought the 55 acres of Pyrmont in 1799 for the sum of 10 pounds (and this was probably paid, according to the ‘Old and New Sydney’ column of the Sydney Morning Herald of 19 July 1882, not in currency but in rum!). The 55 acres had been given as a free grant to Thomas Jones in 1795 (43) and transferred to an Obadiah Ikin; how many millions of dollars would the free gift be worth now?’ (44).
On 12 November 1799, Obadiah received a grant of 60 acres at Bankstown by Governor Hunter (45). However, this grant was cancelled by Hunter on 20 July 1801 as the land had been sold contrary to a provision in the deed (45).
Obadiah remained a sergeant (his pay being one shilling, six and three quarter pence per day) in Townson’s Company on detachment in Sydney until 7 April 1800 when for reasons unknown he was reduced to the rank of private at a pay rate of 1/- per day (46). Perhaps the invalid sale of the 60 acres was the reason for Obadiah being reduced to a private. He probably retained the proceeds from this sale.
Then from 24 October 1802 he was stationed at Parramatta with Townson’s Company and was discharged there as a private on 24 April 1803 (47).
On 30 August 1802, Lord Hobart wrote to Governor King advising that a ‘reduction should be made in the strength of the NSW South Wales Corps, as well as in the regiments of the line’, and those ‘who may prefer staying in the colony to returning to this country, will be permitted to become settlers with the like privileges and advantages as those granted to marines.’ (48). These instructions followed a lull in the wars between Britain and France and as a result, government expenditure needed to be reduced.
This explains Obadiah’s discharge from the Corps for on 9 May 1803 King advised Lord Hobart that ‘thirty-one discharged soldiers have remained as settlers, and seventy-one will proceed to England.’ (49). Subsequently Obadiah received two grants of land.
LIFE AFTER THE ARMY
It is not known how Obadiah earned a living after his discharge from the army, but it is possible he lived off the proceeds from the sale of grants of land he received. Also from the time he was stationed at Parramatta in 1802 it seems reasonable to assume that Obadiah did not live with his wife Sarah again. There is ample evidence that Sarah continued to live in Sydney while Obadiah lived at Parramatta then on his several grants of land.
Following his discharge in 1803 Obadiah was granted half an acre of land at Parramatta by Governor King on 4 September 1803 with an annual quite rent of 10/- (50). It is not known how long Obadiah retained this grant, but on 16 July 1804 he received a further grant of 160 acres at the junction of the Nepean and Grose Rivers from Governor King at 4/- annual quit rent (51). By late 1806 this land had been sold as a notice in the Sydney Gazette states lkin’s Farm at the Nepean was owned by Mr M. Kearns (52). Because it was called lkin’s Farm it is reasonable to assume that Obadiah did farm on this grant before the transfer to Kearns.
It would seem that Obadiah was considered to be a settler for on 14 March 1806 merchant Robert Campbell wrote to the Colonial Secretary in London seeking his assistance in obtaining a large grant of land for pasture. Attached to the memorial was a testimonial from the ‘principal settlers’ dated 23 November 1804 with Obadiah included (53).
In 1805 Governor King asked Judge-Advocate Atkins for his opinion on the treatment to be adopted towards the aborigines. Included in his advice Atkins refers to a number of reports and came to the conclusion that the aborigines were ‘at present incapable of being brought before a Criminal Court, … and that the only mode at present, when they deserve it, is to pursue and inflict such punishment as they may merit.’ (54). In his advice Atkins makes reference to a letter by Obadiah in which he stated his party had ‘destroyed many of them’.
It is likely that some of the lkin family lived at Parramatta from late 1802 when Obadiah was transferred there. On 3 July 1805 Mary lkin married Richard Martin at St. John’s, Parramatta (55). Perhaps Mary was Obadiah’s daughter and the couple lived on his town grant at Parramatta. However, the Sydney Gazette of 13 January 1805 mentions ‘Mrs lkin of the Rocks’ when readers were advised that a model of a brig was on view at Sarah’s house. Was this the work of her sons?
On 9 November 1806 an advertisement appeared in Sydney Gazette offering a reward of one pound sterling for the return of a pair of bellows about 3 foot 2 inches long stolen from Mrs lkin’s house. Sarah is described as a baker, again an indication of Obadiah’s absence from the household. On 25 February 1807 Obadiah signed a letter from the Hawkesbury settlers to Governor Bligh pledging their support for the defence of the country. His wife’s name does not appear. But on a later letter to Bligh (also pledging support) dated 1 January 1808 from settlers in New South Wales, both Obadiah’s and Sarah’s signatures appear (56). The signatures are, however, two pages apart, possibly indicating they were collected at different times from different locations.
On 17 June 1807 the exchange of a house on the Rocks known as No.18 near the Windmill took place between Edward Holt and Obadiah Ikin (57). This is believed to be later known as 52 Cumberland Street which was close to the windmill and where Sarah lived at the time she made her will in 1813.
The Sydney Gazette of 4 December 1808 advertised that Thomas, last seen in Sydney, had absconded from his father and was thought to have gone to the Hawkesbury. Eight days later Obadiah assigned a house situated in Pitt Lane next to Gillakers to William Maughan in London for 34 pounds. Ikin, however, was to continue in possession until 16 December (58). Had Obadiah or members of his family been living there?
On 4 June 1809 Sarah subscribed 2/6 towards the cost of enclosing the Sydney Burial Ground and on 12 November 1809 she advertised wire sieves for sale which could be viewed at her house on the Rocks (59).
By 1810 Obadiah and Sarah had at least two grandchildren; Maria Ann and Lucy Sarah, children of their son William and his wife Mary (60). And Obadiah had received another grant of land.
On 25 November 1809 he received a deed from William Paterson for 60 acres in the district of Evan located about 2 kilometres south of Penrith town centre (61). It is likely that Obadiah had commenced developing the land before the grant was issued just over a month before Governor Macquarie arrived to take over from the rebel administration. On taking up office on 1 January 1810 Macquarie immediately cancelled the grants issued by the administration since Bligh had been removed from effective control in 1808 and asked holders to apply for re-issue. Obadiah surrended his grant at Evan on 9 January 1810 (62).
Obadiah immediately sought the re-issue of the grant by submitting a memorial to the Colonial Secretary on 10 January 1810 (63). In it he stated that he was a settler in the District of Evan, being an ex-sergeant of the 102nd Regiment (renamed from the NSW Corps in 1808 (64), and having served 26 years in the army, 20 of which had been spent in the colony; all he possessed was the 60 acres at Evan. This grant was re-issued on 18 November 1811 and was backdated to 1 January 1810 (65).
In the Register of Grants this land appears to be named ‘Derrintend Farm’ while on a survey map it appears as ‘Denintend Farm’. The origin of the name is not known despite a search of place names in England (66). Because Obadiah described himself as a settler, and the grant bore a name, it is likely that he had been living at the farm for several years improving it with the object of later bringing his family to live there.
Obadiah continued his association with the army till the end for on 4 June 1810 he is listed as a sergeant in the Loyal Sydney Volunteer Association (67). The last recorded evidence of Obadiah being alive is in the 1811 muster taken between 5 February and 5 March (68), and finally when he signed a lease dated 20 August 1811 for 21 years occupancy of ‘Denintend’ to Thomas Rose for 25 pounds sterling per annum (69).
It is interesting to note that the ownership of ‘Denintend’ did not pass to Sarah or to any of the Ikin children, perhaps the final indication that Obadiah was living apart from his family. On 3 September 1818 Thomas Rose, a Sydney shopkeeper, sold the property to Sir John Jamison, owner of the large estate, Regentville, near by (70).
When Sarah made her mark on her will dated 26 January 1813, she described herself as a widow. Therefore, it appears that Obadiah died between 20 August 1811 and 26 January 1813. It is possible he was alive in November 1811 when the Evan grant was re-issued although this may have been done posthumously in view of the occupancy of Thomas Rose. Searches have been made of the indexes available from the Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Sydney under a variety of spellings, also for a headstone, and in the available parish registers of the period, but no trace has been found of his death or burial. It is likely he died on his land at Evan and being away from settlement no minister recorded his burial.
Sarah died soon after making her will and was buried on 29 January 1813 aged 55 years (71). It is likely she was buried in the old Sydney burial ground where the Sydney Town Hall now stands.
Sarah made an interesting will, which gives a good idea of the family’s wealth and social standing, well off considering the social and economic conditions of the time. But note that she left a number of items to William Stephenson, miller, perhaps another indication that Obadiah and Sarah lived apart in their later life (72).
In recognition of Obadiah the Penrith City Council named a street constructed in the 1970s on his Evan land grant ‘Ikin Street’ and another street close by ‘Denintend Place’.
THE WILL OF SARAH IKlN MADE ON 26 JANUARY 1813
In the name of God Amen I Sarah Ikin of the Town of Sydney in the County of Cumberland in the Territory of New South Wales Widow being sick and weak of body but of perfect mind give and bequeath to Thomas Ikin my dearly beloved Son the House and Premises and the Furniture / except as herein after excepted / known as 52 Cumberland Street also that Plot of Garden Ground oposite the said House known as Mrs Ikins Garden to my said Son Thomas Ikin. I give unto William Stephenson / Miller / my White Chest the Pigs in the Sty my Bedstead, Bed, 1 Pillow 1 Bolster 1 Pillow Case 2 Pair of Sheets 2 Blankets and 1 Coverlid, I give unto Mrs Mary Ikin wife of my Son William late of Sydney but now of England my Ear Rings and the Ring on my finger and I do hereby utterly disallow all and every other former testaments and Wills ratifying and confirming this and no other In Witness where of I have hereunto set my Hand and Seal this Twenty Sixth day of January One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirteen.
Signed Sealed published pronounced and declared by the said Sarah Ikin as her last Will and Testament in her presence and in the presence of each other have hereto subscribed our names
Sarah Ikin her X mark
James Gready, Andrew Davidson, M English
Codicil to Will of Sarah Ikin
Be it known to all Men by those presents that I Sarah Ikin of the Town of Sydney Widow have made and declared my last Will and Testament in writing bearing date the Twenty sixth day of January One Thousand Eight Hundred and thirteen I Sarah Ikin by the Present Condition do Will that my Daughter Maria Ikin do live in the House for One Twelve Month after my decease rent free and after that period leave it to the option of my Son Thomas to charge such rent as he may think proper and my Will and Meaning is that this Codicil be adjudged to be part and parcel of my last Will and testament Witness my hand this Twenty Sixth day of January One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirteen
Signed in the presence of us
M English, Andrew Davison, James Gready
Sarah Ikin her X mark
New South Wales Probate Office, Sydney, Old Series Number 42
1. Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (1831), Volume 4, page 455, and Arthur Mee, The Kings England, Shropshire, pages 228-232.
2. F. Smith, Genealogical Gazetteer of England, (1977), page 566.
3. International Genealogical Index, (1981 edition), (microfiche), section for Shropshire, page 9428, and microfilm of the parish register from the Genealogical Society of Utah. As to Obadiah’s father, the Index section for Shropshire includes a marriage entry for Daniel Ikin and Ann Turner on 10.7.1759 at the parish Edgmond near Whitchurch; there are no children listed for this couple. Also there is an Ann Ikin baptised at Wellington on 1 April 1739. The investigation is made difficult by the number of spelling variations to Ikin in Shropshire and Cheshire just to the north of the parish of Whitchurch, and it is not possible to conclude that there is a relationship to the persons mentioned above.
4. International Genealogical Index (1981 Edition), (microfiche), section for Kent, page 8697
5. ibid, page 2721
6. Obadiah Joseph, Coroners Inquest, Archives Office of NSW, 2/8286 and familysearch.org; wherre the entry has been transctibed as Skin rather than Ikin – International Genealogical Index Batch C005465, Marianne, International Genealogical Index (1981 Edition), (microfiche), section for Shropshire, page 9427; William, War Office, Class 25, Piece 642, AJCP Reel 1302, International Genealogical Index (1981 Edition), (microfiche), section for Nottingham, page 6883; Mary Ann, International Genealogical Index (1981 Edition), (microfiche), section for Suffolk, page 7235; Alexander, St Mary Parish Register, Chatham, Kent, England, online at cityark.medway.gov.uk, image 20102, accessed March 2011 (thanks to Gillian Kendrigan).
7. NSW Colonial Secretary, In-Letters, Memorial No. 155, Archives Office of NSW, 4/1821.
8. War Office Class 12, Piece 977, Public Record Office, London.
9. Newspaper file, Nottinghamshire Record Office.
10. Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Sydney, NSW, 3290 29, 1858
11. War Office Class 12, Piece 11028, AJCP Reel 417, and Historical Records of New South Wales, (1893) , Volume 2, page 434
12. War Office Class 12, Piece 11028, AJCP Reel 417
14. Obadiah, see Note 39; Mary, see Note 55, William, see Note 36.
15. Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Sydney, NSW, Volume 4, entry 114.
16. Home Office Class 10, Pieces 5 and 37, AJCP Reels 61 and 72. War Office, Class 25, Piece 642, AJCP Reel 1302 indicates that William came on the ship Scarborough in the Second Fleet. This information was compiled in 1808 and is believed to be incorrect; it is unlikely that a 4 year old child would be separated from his family.
17. Historical Records of New South Wales, (1893), Volume 2, page 432.
18. Charles Bateson, The Convict Ships 1787-1868, (1974), page 126-127.
19. ibid, page 127.
20. ibid, page 127.
21. John Cobley, Sydney Cove, 1791-1792, (1965), page 57.
22. ibid, page 79.
23. ibid, page 91.
24. War Office Class 12, Piece 11028, AJCP Reel 417.
26. Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Sydney, NSW, Volume 4, Number 208 and John Cobley, Sydney Cove, 1791-1792, (1965), page 355. In relation to the spelling of the name of the Church the spelling given by Governor Macquarie – St. Phillips – on 23 July 1802, has been used, Historical Records of Australia, (1917), Series 1, Volume 3, pages 630-1.
27. J. S. Cumpston, Shipping Arrivals and Departures, Sydney 1788-1825, (1977), page 27, and Norfolk Island Victualling Book, page 4b, Mitchell Library, Sydney, NSW, A1958.
28. Historical Records of New South Wales, (1893), Volume 2, pages 103-110, 125-131,135-191, and Journal of Transactions, Norfolk Island, 1791-94, page 384, Mitchell Library, Sydney, NSW, A1687. For further information about this incident see the book The convict theatre of early Australia, Robert Jordan, 2002.
29. Historical Records of New South Wales (1893), Volume 2, pages 103 to 191, and J. S. Cumpston, Shipping Arrivals and Departures Sydney 1788-1825, (1977) , page 29.
30. J. S. Cumpston, Shipping Arrivals and Departures Sydney 1788-1825, (1977), page 29, and Norfolk Island Victualling Book, page 4b, Mitchell Library, A1958.
31. ibid, page 29 and pages 4b and 51b, and King P. G. Letter Book, Norfolk Island, 1788-1799, page 244, Mitchell Library, C187.
32. R. Maurice Hill, A Short History of the New South Wales Corps 1789-1818, in Army Historical Research, Volume 13, 1934, pages 135-140.
33. K. A. Johnson and M. R. Sainty, Land Grants 1788-1809, (1974), pages 24-5, and Land Titles Office, Sydney, NSW, S/No 1, page 102. Also click on the link below to see some notes and a copy of the original grant document.
34 ibid, pages 192-3, S/No 1, page 153.
35 K. A. Johnson and M. R. Sainty, Land Grants 1788-1809, (1974), page 39.
36. War Office Class 25, Piece 642, AJCP Reel 1302.
37. Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Sydney, NSW, Volume 1, entry 508.
38. R. J. B. Knight and A. Frost, editors, The Journal of Daniel Paine 1794-1797, (1983), pages 24-9.
39. ibid, page xx.
40. ibid, page 22.
41. Historical Records of Australia, (1917), Series 1, Volume 1, page 623.
42. Len Fox, Old Sydney Windmills, (1978), page 33.
43. Thomas Jones was a soldier in the New South Wales Corps and received the grant on 14 March 1795, see K. A. Johnson and M. R. Sainty, Land Grants 1788-1809, (1974), page 48.
44. These transactions were also mentioned in W. Beatty, Tales of Old Australia, (1966), page 37. Beatty states that Jones sold the land to Ikin 17 months after receiving the grant and also that Macarthur named the grant Pyrmont. This land is also mentioned in Henry Ikin’s autobiography held by the Archives Office of NSW. Henry was a grandson of Obadiah. The transfer from Obadiah to Macarthur occurred on 12 July 1799, Index to Deposited Deeds, Land Titles Office, Sydney.
45. K. A. Johnson and M. R. Sainty, Land Grants 1788-1809, (1974), pages 104-5, and Land Titles Office, Sydney, NSW, S/No 2, page 368.
46. War Office Class 25, Piece 1342, AJCP Reel 1302; Class 12, Pieces 9899 to 9902, AJCP Reels 412 to 414.
47. War Office Class 12, Piece 9902, AJCP Reel 414.
48. Historical Records of Australia, (1917), Series 1, Vol. 3, page 574.
49. ibid. Vol. 4, page 165.
50. K. A. Johnson and M. R. Sainty, Land Grants 1788-1809, (1974), pages 202-3, and Land Titles Office, Sydney, NSW, S/No 3c, page 121.
51. ibid, pages 142-3, S/No 3, page 139.
52. Sydney Gazette, 28 December 1806.
53. Colonial Office Class 201, Piece 41, AJCP Reel 20.
54. Historical Records of Australia, (1917), Series 1 , Volume 5, page 503.
55. Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Sydney, NSW, Volume 3 entry 642.
56. Banks’ Papers, Volume 22, page 182 (25 February 1807); pages 300 and 302, (1 January 1808), Mitchell Library, Sydney, NSW, A85 and FM1753.
57. Land Titles Office, Sydney, NSW, Old Registers Book 1, page 153, entry 1165.
58. ibid, Book 2, page 18, entry 58.
59. Sydney Gazette, 4 June and 12 November 1809.
60. William Ikin married Mary Longford at Sydney on 18 January 1807 (Volume 3, entry 710), Maria Ann was born on 7 March 1808 (Volume 1, entry 1830) and Lucy Sarah was born on 12 April 1810 (Volume 1, entry 2077) in Sydney.
61. K. A. Johnson and M. R. Sainty, Land Grants 1788-1809, (1974), page 245, Land Titles Office, Sydney, NSW, S/no 4, page 233 and S/No 5, page 48.
62. Historical Records of Australia, (1917), Series 1, Volume 7, page 305.
63. NSW Colonial Secretary, In-Letters, Memorial No. 155, Archives Office of NSW, 4/1821.
64. Sydney Gazette, 20 August 1809, by Government order 24 December 1808.
65. Historical Records of Australia, Series 1, Volume 7, page 436.
66. See note 61 and Castlereagh Parish Map, NSW State Mapping Office.
67. NSW Colonial Secretary, In-Letters 1810, Bundle 4, page 12, Archives Office of NSW, 4/1725, No. 100-163, Reel 2158.
68. Home Office Class 10, Piece 5, AJCP Reel 61.
69. Land Titles Office, Sydney, NSW, Old Registers, Book 5, page 39 entry 495.
70. ibid, Book 7, page 174, entry 449.
71. Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Sydney, NSW, Volume 7, entry 114.
72. Who was William Stephnson? It is interesting to note his profession was miller, while Sarah was described as a baker in 1806, a connection perhaps. From church records of the time it is most likely that he was the William Stephenson who died at Sydney on 5 April 1820 aged 73 years (Volume 8, entry 256).
Note – My Ikin, Bullivant and Turnbull ancestors are listed on a web site named Australian Royalty after the present day recognition that it is good to have at least one convict as an ancestor, click on link below.